Scales & measures

Our validated scales and measures are managed by Mapi Research Trust, a not-for-profit organisation dedicated to promoting scientific approaches in the field of patient-cented outcomes. They have over 40 years’ experience in the management, cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of questionnaires. Please contact Mapi Research Trust if you would like to enquire about using or translating our questionnaires.

You can read more about our scales and measures below

Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale – Type 1 diabetes (DSAS-1)

The Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) is a self-report measures of perceived and experienced stigma related to living with type 1 diabetes. It is intended for self-completion by adults with type 1 diabetes, which takes approximately 2-5 minutes. The ACBRD holds the copyright for the original scale and any subsequent modified or translated versions.

The DSAS-1 includes 19 items, which form three sub-scales: Treated Differently, Blame and Judgement, Identity Concerns. A total scale score can also be calculated. Each sub-scale can be used independent of the others, but this will give an incomplete assessment of perceived and experienced stigma. We recommend use of the full 19 items, with analyses of total scale and sub-scales.

Publications about the DSAS-1:

Browne JL, Ventura AD, Oliver K, Speight J (2017) Measuring type 1 diabetes stigma: development and validation of the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1). Diabetic Medicine, 34(12): 1773-1782

Møller Hansen UM, Willaing I, Ventura AD, Olesen K, Speight J, Browne JL. Stigma perceived and experienced by adults with type 1 diabetes: Linguistic adaptation and psychometric validation of the Danish version of the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1 DK). The Patient, 11(4): 403-412


Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale – Type 2 diabetes (DSAS-2)

The Type 2 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-2) is a self-report measures of perceived and experienced related to living with type 2 diabetes. It is intended for self-completion by adults with type 2 diabetes, which takes approximately 2-5 minutes. The ACBRD holds the copyright for the original scale and any subsequent modified or translated versions.

The DSAS-2 includes 19 items, which form three sub-scales: Treated Differently, Blame and Judgement, Self-Stigma. A total scale score can also be calculated. Each sub-scale can be used independent of the others, but this will give an incomplete assessment of perceived and experienced stigma. We recommend use of the full 19 items, with analyses of total scale and sub-scales.

Publications about the DSAS-2:

Browne JL, Ventura A, Oliver K, Speight J (2016) Measuring the stigma surrounding type 2 diabetes: development and validation of the Type 2 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-2). Diabetes Care, 39(12): 2141-2148

Holmes-Truscott E, Browne JL, Ventura AD, Pouwer F, Speight J. Is diabetes stigma associated with negative treatment appraisals among adults with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes? Results from the second Diabetes MILES – Australia (MILES-2) survey. Diabetic Medicine, 2018; 35(5): 658-662


Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire (HypoA-Q)

The HypoA-Q is profile measure of hypoglycaemia awareness (when awake/asleep) and hypoglycaemia frequency, severity and impact (healthcare utilisation). It includes a 5-item ‘impaired awareness’ sub-scale, which has proven predictive validity (predicting recall of severe and nocturnal hypoglycaemia) and is responsive to intervention in clinical trials. The HypoA-Q has robust face and content validity; satisfactory structure and internal reliability; good convergent, divergent and known groups validity.

Publications about the HypoA-Q:

Speight J, Barendse SM, Singh H, Inkster B, Little S, Frier BM, Shaw JAM. Characterising problematical hypoglycaemia: iterative design and psychometric validation of the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire (HypoA-Q). Diabetic Medicine, 2016; 33(3): 376-85.

Little SA, Leelarathna L, Walkinshaw E, Tan HK, Chapple O, Lubina-Solomon A, Chadwick TJ, Barendse S, Stocken DD, Brennand C, Marshall SM, Wood R, Speight J, Kerr D, Flanagan D, Heller SR, Evans ML, Shaw JAM. Recovery of hypoglycemia awareness in longstanding type 1 diabetes: a multicenter 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial comparing insulin pump with multiple daily injections and continuous with conventional glucose self-monitoring (HypoCOMPaSS). Diabetes Care, 2014; 37(8): 2114-2122.

Little SA, Speight J, Leelarathna L, Walkinshaw E, Tan HK, Bowes A, Lubina-Solomon A, Chadwick TJ, Stocken DD, Brennand C, Marshall SM, Wood R, Kerr D, Flanagan D, Heller SR, Evans ML, Shaw JAM. Sustained Reduction in Severe Hypoglycemia in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Complicated by Impaired Awareness of Hypoglycemia: 2-Year Follow-up in the HypoCOMPaSS Randomized Clinical TrialDiabetes Care. 2018; 41(9): 1-8.